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Larsen's Human Embryology


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  • _OC_InitNavbar("child_node":["title":"My library","url":" =114584440181414684107\u0026source=gbs_lp_bookshelf_list","id":"my_library","collapsed":true,"title":"My History","url":"","id":"my_history","collapsed":true,"title":"Books on Google Play","url":" ","id":"ebookstore","collapsed":true],"highlighted_node_id":"");Human EmbryologyWilliam James LarsenChurchill Livingstone, 2001 - Embryology - 548 pages 2 ReviewsReviews aren't verified, but Google checks for and removes fake content when it's identifiedThis basic textbook of human embryology covers both clinical and molecular biological aspects of human development. It offers in-depth, thorough coverage of the latest information, including separate sections in each chapter on clinical relevance and experimental studies. HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY also features a first-rate, four-color art program with superb photographs and electronmicrographs.Examines the latest advances in the understanding of regulatory genes and their specific impact on embryologic development.

  • Relates development to clinical problems with separate sections on clinical applications and experimental principles - fully revised to accommodate many new developmentsFeatures a modular design that allows readers to choose the way they approach the material.

  • Depicts the development of all major structures and organ systems from conception to birth with brilliantly illustrated timelines in each chapter.Makes study easier with detailed chapter summaries as well as sentence-style headings that highlight important content.

  • Facilitates further research with current references.Offers readers a wealth of animations and interactive exercises--as well as access to up-to-the-minute advances--on the Human Embryology web site,

Spanish version also available, ISBN: 84-8174-655-X What people are saying - Write a reviewReviews aren't verified, but Google checks for and removes fake content when it's identifiedUser Review - Flag as inappropriatehuman embryology

Larsen's Human Embryology

Larsen's Human Embryology works as a well-organized, straightforward guide to this highly complex subject, placing an emphasis on the clinical application of embryology and presenting it in an easily digestible manner. Ideal for visual students, this updated medical textbook includes a superior art program, brand-new online animations, and high-quality images throughout; clear descriptions and explanations of human embryonic development, based on all of the most up-to-date scientific discoveries and understanding, keep you abreast of the latest knowledge in the field.

Embryology is the most complex subject because it is tough to remember all the phases occurring in the development and growth of a human being. The human development phase following the growth phase is the most important thing to remember sequentially. For most of the students, it becomes a bit tough to memorize all the details in their long-term memory.

William J. Larsen, Ph.D. was a gifted scientist, consistently producing research at the forefront of cell, developmental and reproductive biology. Early in his career, he published a landmark paper that conclusively established mitochondrial fission as the mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis. He went on to become the first to demonstrate the endocytosis of gap junctions. Moreover, his work on the hormonal regulation of gap junction formation and growth culminated in an authoritative review article in Tissue and Cell "Structural Diversity of Gap Junctions (1988)", which became a Citation Classic. Throughout his career, his sixty-seven peer-reviewed publications; not to mention numerous invited reviews, abstracts and book chapters, covered a wide range of research areas including adrenal cortical tumor cells, human ovarian carcinomas, preterm labor, cumulus expansion, oocyte maturation, ovulation, folliculogenesis and in vitro fertilization.

This is a very positive point of view from the perspective of students as there are summary boxes available to memorize all the details in no time. In addition, a complete overview at the start of the chapter also helps to understand all the events happening in human development. All weeks of human development and growth are described sequentially to understand in a better way.

The name of the book denotes the proper details of the content. It includes all the basic concepts of human embryology. In addition, it explains all the stages of human development and growth in correlation with their week. This book illustrates the main overview of the whole chapter at the start and then explains the further aspects of that main topic.

There are stages of embryo formation with every passing week in the development phase of human beings. Once the embryo development completes, which includes the formation of various organs and organoids, the growth phase begins.

Larsen began writing his book in 1988. Each of the chapters in the textbook contains three sections: descriptive medical embryology; clinical applications; and experimental principles. (Id. 12) Larsen describes the textbook as follows:

(Id. 6) The illustrations Larsen used included three-dimensional, air-brushed drawings ("3-D drawings"), scanning electron micrographs ("SEMS") and photographs. (Id. 18) Larsen claims that the 3-D drawings "showed the asymmetrical bilateral nature of embryological development" and presented sophisticated topics that had not previously been addressed in embryology textbooks. (Id. 19-20) According to Larsen, SEMS, which are high resolution photographs of anatomic surfaces, showed the "actual shape and appearance of the subject." (Id. 24) Photographs illustrated developmental malformations. (Id. 27) Larsen included also tables to present various information, and new topics that had not previously been included in embryology texts. (Id. 29)

Larsen's was published in 1993 and was "hailed as a major advancement in embryology textbooks." (Id. 30) Reviewers praised the illustrations and the inclusion of clinical material. Larsen's won the 1993 Award of Excellence of the Association of Medical Illustrators. (Id. 31-32) In addition, according to plaintiff, Larsen's was a great commercial success. (Id. 33)

In 1995, Williams & Wilkins, a division of Waverly, Inc. and a book publisher incorporated in the state of Maryland, published the seventh edition of Langman's Medical Embryology ("Langman's 7th"). (Compl. 3) Dr. Thomas W. Sadler edited the volume, which he has edited since the fifth edition in 1985. (5/28/96 Sadler Aff. 2-4). Sadler has been a professor of embryology since 1976 and now teaches at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (Id. 9) Sadler has considerable expertise in teratology, the study of birth defects and congenital malformations. Since 1992 he has been the Director of the Birth Defects Center at the University of North Carolina and since 1993 the editor of the Teratology Journal of Abnormal Development. (Id. 10)

According to Sadler, Langman's 7th is concise and confines the study of embryology to "what students need to know in terms of what is taught in the classroom and what is covered by the national exams." (Id. 27) Sadler claims that Langman's always has been well illustrated and every edition has included ample drawings and photos. Sadler claims also that Langman's always has included 3-D drawings, and that in 1985 Sadler added SEMS to the fifth edition to complement drawings already in the book. (Id. 29) Langman's 7th competes with Larsen's in the medical school textbook market. (Pl. 3(g) 10)

Defendants explain each of the additions to Langman's 7th. First, defendants claim that the addition of 3-D drawings stemmed from Sadler's access to his sister's, Susan Sadler-Redmond's, computer generated art, and that most of the 3-D art added to Langman's 7th is merely stylized drawings of two-dimensional art which appeared in Langman's 6th and which relate to fundamental concepts and stages of embryological development. (Id. 67, 72, 77, 79) Second, defendants claim that the increased use of SEMS was planned before Larsen's was published, in part because Sadler had access to a collection of SEMS owned by his colleague and co-teacher of embryology, Dr. Kathleen Sulik. (Id. 48) Third, defendants claim that the photographs selected for inclusion in Langman's 7th relate to common abnormalities or birth defects, or fundamental embryological concepts or phenomena, which are routinely taught in medical school with the use of photographs. (Id. 105-107) Fourth, defendants claim that the use of tables in medical textbooks is a convention and that in selecting and arranging their tables defendants did not copy Larsen's. (Id. 118) Fifth, defendants claim that the new topics added to Langman's 7th were either found in Langman's 6th or in other embryology textbooks, or were subjects that had received increased emphasis or attention in the field and warranted inclusion in Langman's 7th. (Id. 142-144) Finally, defendants argue that the clinical correlates section is different from the clinical applications section in Larsen's because it is set off in pink and included within the chapter, rather than appearing at the end. (Id. 164)

Defendants have submitted an enormous and extensive filtration and comparison book, comprising seven volumes, which compares the allegedly infringing drawings, SEMS, photographs and topics from Langman's 7th with other embryology textbooks including Larsen's. Defendants' filtration book establishes essentially that 3-D drawings, SEMS and photographs have been used to illustrate embryology textbooks prior to Larsen's, and that Larsen's was not the first to illustrate certain subjects.

Accordingly, the facts underlying the science of embryology the nature of an embryo's development and growth, and the scientific principles defining normal and abnormal embryological processes are not copyrightable. In addition, certain topics of embryology individual phenomena, phases or processes are not themselves copyrightable. One could not prevent others from discussing the effects of cocaine on embryo growth, for example, or the topic of genomic printing. What is copyrightable and protectible in a medical textbook is the unique narration of facts, and what may be copyrightable is the selection and arrangement of facts or topics. 041b061a72

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